Transducer play an important role in the area of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted in one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.
It is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is changed into a power energy.
Types of transducer:
There are 2 varieties of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: torque measurement is a device which converts the given non-electricity into electricity on its own. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and a lot more are the best samples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer would be the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect is located in some materials (including quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it produces an electrical charge and, when an electric powered field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way round. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism could be called button load cell. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and therefore can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The main benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker is based on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging are also based on piezoelectrics. In this case, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while lowering the input power simultaneously, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally employed to generate forces or even to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors that are very frequently used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used together with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes using the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors do not produce a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in hkjrzk energy and the other way round. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good option for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when leading edge performance is needed.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated beneath the right conditions, the newest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can also work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to provide the controller the correct information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by providing the correct amplitude and phase output to the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be load cell, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any type of rapid actuation may cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the greater reactive forces it will cause. In case these forces are unwanted, another piezo mechanical system using a counter mass may be integrated and driven having a signal from the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel each other out and the work piece can now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is frequently found in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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